Differentiate among the basic approaches to learning for each of the five psychological learning theories. Give an example of applying each psychological theory to changing the attitudes and behaviors of learners in a specific situation. Outline alternative strategies for learning in a given situation using at least two different psychological learning theories. Identify the differences and similarities in the psychological learning theories specific to a the basic procedures of learning, b the assumptions made about the learning, c the task of the educator, d the sources of motivation, and e the way in which the transfer of learning is facilitated.
Non-associative learning[ edit ] Non-associative learning refers to "a relatively permanent change in the strength of response to a single stimulus due to repeated exposure to that stimulus.
Stimulus generalization is the tendency of a subject to respond to a stimulus or a group of stimuli similar but not identical to the original CS. For example, a subject may initially make the desired response when exposed to any sound (that is, to a generalized stimulus) rather than making such a . Simple Stimulus Learning In the following analysis of various forms of simple stimulus learning, the concept of habituation, including many examples will be studied and explained. Three factors that affect perceptual learning will be analyzed. B.F. Skinner (–90) was a leading American psychologist, Harvard professor and proponent of the behaviourist theory of learning in which learning is a process of ‘conditioning’ in an environment of stimulus, reward and punishment.
Changes due to such factors as sensory adaptationfatigueor injury do not qualify as non-associative learning. Habituation Habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which the strength or probability of a response diminishes when the stimulus is repeated.
The response is typically a reflex or unconditioned response. Thus, habituation must be distinguished from extinctionwhich is an associative process.
In operant extinction, for example, a response declines because it is no longer followed by a reward. An example of habituation can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl or similar predator is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator.
Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced or the same one removed and re-introducedthe birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place.
The habituation process is faster for stimuli that occur at a high rather than for stimuli that occur at a low rate as well as for the weak and strong stimuli, respectively. Sensitization Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus Bell et al.
After a while, this stimulation creates a warm sensation that eventually turns painful. The pain results from the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning that the stimulation is harmful.
Active learning Experiential learning is more efficient than passive learning like reading or listening. Since understanding information is the key aspect of learning, it is important for learners to recognize what they understand and what they do not.
By doing so, they can monitor their own mastery of subjects. Active learning encourages learners to have an internal dialogue in which they verbalize understandings. This and other meta-cognitive strategies can be taught to a child over time.
Studies within metacognition have proven the value in active learning, claiming that the learning is usually at a stronger level as a result. Conversely, passive learning and direct instruction are characteristics of teacher-centered learning or traditional education.
The research works on the human learning process as a complex adaptive system developed by Peter Belohlavek showed that it is the concept that the individual has that drives the accommodation process to assimilate new knowledge in the long-term memorydefining learning as an intrinsically freedom-oriented and active process.
In operant conditioning, a behavior that is reinforced or punished in the presence of a stimulus becomes more or less likely to occur in the presence of that stimulus.
Classical conditioning The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response with another previously neutral stimulus which does not normally evoke the response.The need for a bridge between basic learning research and educational practice has long been discussed.
To ensure a strong connection between these two areas, Dewey (cited in. The Verb Recognize a verb when you see one. Verbs are a necessary component of all benjaminpohle.com have two important functions: Some verbs put stalled subjects into motion while other verbs help to clarify the subjects in meaningful ways.
44 Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Explicit knowledge exists in the form of words, sentences, documents, organized data, computer programs and in other explicit forms.
In his address to the Division of Theoretical-Experimental Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Kenneth W. Spence discussed six distinctions between cognitive and stimulus-response (S-R) theories of learning. 1A. Theories of Learning Here are some introductory overviews of modern “active learning” theories: • An introduction to theories about Learning & Cognition is Joyce Alexander's overview-summaries of learning theories, behaviorism, cognitive information processing, meaningful reception learning, cognitive development, and constructivism.
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