Flag of the Arab Leagueused in some cases for the Arabic language Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz — Arabic usually designates one of three main variants:
Flag of the Arab Leagueused in some cases for the Arabic language Flag used in some cases for the Arabic language Flag of the Kingdom of Hejaz — Arabic usually designates one of three main variants: In practice, however, modern authors almost never write in pure Classical Arabic, instead using a literary language with its own grammatical norms and vocabulary, commonly known as Modern Standard Arabic MSA.
MSA is the variety used in most current, printed Arabic publications, spoken by some of the Arabic media across North Africa and the Middle Eastand understood by most educated Arabic speakers.
Certain grammatical constructions of CA that have no counterpart in any modern dialect e.
No modern spoken variety of Arabic has case distinctions. As a result, MSA is generally composed without case distinctions in mind, and the proper cases are added after the fact, when necessary. Because most case endings are noted using final short vowels, which are normally left unwritten in the Arabic script, it is unnecessary to determine the proper case of most words.
The practical result of this is that MSA, like English and Standard Chineseis written in a strongly determined word order and alternative orders that were used in CA for emphasis are rare. In addition, because of the lack of case marking in the spoken varieties, most speakers cannot consistently use the correct endings in extemporaneous speech.
As a result, spoken MSA tends to drop or regularize the endings except when reading from a prepared text. The numeral system in CA is complex and heavily tied in with the case system. This system is never used in MSA, even in the most formal of circumstances; instead, a significantly simplified system is used, approximating the system of the conservative spoken varieties.
MSA uses much Classical vocabulary e. In addition, MSA has borrowed or coined a large number of terms for concepts that did not exist in Quranic times, and MSA continues to evolve. However, the current preference is to avoid direct borrowings, preferring to either use loan translations e.
An earlier tendency was to redefine an older word although this has fallen into disuse e. Colloquial or dialectal Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties which constitute the everyday spoken language and evolved from Classical Arabic.
Colloquial Arabic has many regional variants; geographically distant varieties usually differ enough to be mutually unintelligibleand some linguists consider them distinct languages.
They are often used in informal spoken media, such as soap operas and talk shows as well as occasionally in certain forms of written media such as poetry and printed advertising.
The only variety of modern Arabic to have acquired official language status is Maltesewhich is spoken in predominantly Catholic Malta and written with the Latin script.
It is descended from Classical Arabic through Siculo-Arabicbut is not mutually intelligible with any other variety of Arabic. Most linguists list it as a separate language rather than as a dialect of Arabic. Even during Muhammad's lifetime, there were dialects of spoken Arabic.
Muhammad spoke in the dialect of Meccain the western Arabian peninsulaand it was in this dialect that the Quran was written down. However, the dialects of the eastern Arabian peninsula were considered the most prestigious at the time, so the language of the Quran was ultimately converted to follow the eastern phonology.
It is this phonology that underlies the modern pronunciation of Classical Arabic. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their school-taught Standard Arabic as well as their native, mutually unintelligible "dialects";      these dialects linguistically constitute separate languages which may have dialects of their own.
Arabic speakers often improve their familiarity with other dialects via music or film. The issue of whether Arabic is one language or many languages is politically charged, in the same way it is for the varieties of ChineseHindi and UrduSerbian and CroatianScots and English, etc.
In contrast to speakers of Hindi and Urdu who claim they cannot understand each other even when they can, speakers of the varieties of Arabic will claim they can all understand each other even when they cannot.
A single written form, significantly different from any of the spoken varieties learned natively, unites a number of sometimes divergent spoken forms. For political reasons, Arabs mostly assert that they all speak a single language, despite significant issues of mutual incomprehensibility among differing spoken versions.
The period of divergence from a single spoken form is similar—perhaps years for Arabic, years for the Romance languages.
Also, while it is comprehensible to people from the Maghreba linguistically innovative variety such as Moroccan Arabic is essentially incomprehensible to Arabs from the Mashriqmuch as French is incomprehensible to Spanish or Italian speakers but relatively easily learned by them.
This suggests that the spoken varieties may linguistically be considered separate languages. Influence of Arabic on other languages[ edit ] The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries, because it is the language of the Islamic sacred book, the Quran.
Arabic is considered to be a popular second-language choice in France.
Examples of such words include admiral, adobe, alchemy, alcohol, algebra, algorithm, alkaline, almanac, amber, arsenal, assassin, candy, carat, cipher, coffee, cotton, ghoul, hazard, jar, kismet, lemon, loofah, magazine, mattress, sherbet, sofa, sumac, tariff, and zenith.List of Arabic and Muslim names, with their meaning 23 Comments You will find below a list of Arab or Muslim names and first names, with the translation of their meaning .
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