Because it is a just cause, a noble ideal, a moral quest for equality and human rights.
In that vein, about contemporary Orientalist stereotypes of Arabs and Muslims, Said said: So far as the United States seems to be concerned, it is only a slight overstatement to say that Moslems and Arabs are essentially seen as either oil suppliers or potential terrorists.
Very little of the detail, the human density, the passion of Arab—Moslem life has entered the awareness of even those people whose profession it is to report the Arab world.
What we have, instead, is a series of crude, essentialized caricatures of the Islamic world, presented in such a way as to make that world vulnerable to military aggression. Therefore, Orientalism was a method of practical and cultural discrimination that was applied to non-European societies and peoples in order to establish European imperial domination.
In justification of empire, the Orientalist claims to know more—essential and definitive knowledge—about the Orient than do the Orientals. That the history of European colonial rule and political domination of Eastern civilizations, distorts the intellectual objectivity of even the most knowledgeable, well-meaning, and culturally sympathetic Western Orientalist; thus did the term "Orientalism" become a pejorative word regarding non—Western peoples and cultures: To say this may seem quite different from saying that all academic Edward siad and orientalism about India and Egypt is somehow tinged and impressed with, violated by, the gross political fact—and yet that is what I am saying in this study of Orientalism.
Towards the end of his life for instance, Said argued that while representations are essential for the function of human life and societies — as essential as language itself — what must cease are representations that are authoritatively repressive, because they do not provide any real possibilities for those being represented to intervene in this process.
The Reception of the Ambassadors in Damascus depicts the " Arabic culture " of 16th-century Syria. Said said that the Western world sought to dominate the Eastern world for more than 2, years, since Classical antiquity 8th c. In the course of empire, after the physical-and-political conquest, there followed the intellectual conquest of a people, whereby Western scholars appropriated for themselves as European intellectual property the interpretation and translation of Oriental languages, and the critical study of the cultures and histories of the Oriental world.
Orientalism fictionally depicts the Orient as an irrational, psychologically weak, and feminized, non-European Otherwhich is negatively contrasted with the rational, psychologically strong, and masculine West.
Such a binary relation, in a hierarchy of weakness and strength, derives from the European psychological need to create a difference of cultural inequality, between West and East, which inequality is attributable to "immutable cultural essences " inherent to Oriental peoples and things.
The Western world had been surprised, by the pro-active and decisive actions of non-Western peoples, whom the ideology of Orientalism had defined as essentially weak societies and impotent countries.
Oct 28, · Edward Said's book ORIENTALISM has been profoundly influential in a diverse range of disciplines since its publication in In this engaging (and lavishl. In Orientalism, Said described Bernard Lewis, the Anglo–American Orientalist, as "a perfect exemplification [of an] Establishment Orientalist [whose work] purports to be objective, liberal scholarship, but is, Edward Said: A Legacy of Emancipation and Representation. University of California Press. Orientalism is a book by Edward W. Said, in which the author discusses Orientalism, defined as the West's patronizing representations of "The East"—the societies and peoples who inhabit the places of Asia, North Africa, and the Middle East. According to Said, orientalism (the Western scholarship about the Eastern World) is .
The geopolitical reality of their actions, of military and economic warfare, voided the fictional nature of Orientalist representationsattitudes, and opinions about the non-Western Other self. Literature here is understood as a kind of carrier and distributor of ideology.
The greatest intellectual impact of Orientalism was upon the fields of literary theorycultural studiesand human geographyby way of which originated the field of Post-colonial studies. Post-colonial Culture Studies[ edit ] As a work of cultural criticism, Orientalism is the foundation document in the field of Post-colonialismbecause the thesis proved historically factual, true, and accurate for the periods studied; and for the How?
Said's survey concentrated upon the British and the French varieties of Orientalism that supported the British Empire and the French Empire as commercial enterprises constructed from colonialism, and gave perfunctory coverage, discussion, and analyses of German Orientalist scholarship.
A People Interrupted Writing History and the WestRobert J. Young reported Post-colonial explanations of the "How? That overcoming such intellectual malaise requires that area scholars choose to break their "mind-forg'd manacles" and deeply reflect upon the basic cultural assumptions of their area-studies scholarship.
Edward William Lane, the translator and lexicographer who compiled the Arabic—English Lexicon — In Dangerous Knowledge, Irwin relates that the 19th-century English Arabist Edward William Lanecompiler of the great Arabic-English Lexicon , "used to complain that he had become so used to the cursive calligraphy of his Arabic manuscripts that he found Western print a great strain on his eyes.
The first International Congress of Orientalists met in ; its name was not changed until a full century later. But there are no self-declared Orientalists today. The reason is that the late Edward Said turned the word into a pejorative. In his book Orientalism, the Palestinian-born Said, a professor of comparative literature at Columbia University, claimed that an endemic Western prejudice against the East had congealed into a modern ideology of racist supremacy—a kind of anti-Semitism directed against Arabs and Muslims.
Throughout Europe's history, announced Said, "every European, in that he could say about the Orient, was a racist, an imperialist, and almost totally ethnocentric.
At best, charged Said, the work of these scholars was biased, so as to confirm the inferiority of Islam. At worst, Orientalists had directly served European empires, showing proconsuls how best to conquer and control Muslims.
To substantiate his indictment, Said cherry-picked evidence, ignored whatever contradicted his thesis, and filled the gaps with conspiracy theories.
I remain in the safety of rhetorical analysis, where criticism is the second-best thing I do. In the book review, "The Mightier Pen? The Polemical Errors of Edward Said"Mark Proudman noted incorrect 19th-century history in Orientalism, that the geographic extent of the British Empire was not from Egypt to India in the s, because the Ottoman Empire and the Persian Empire in that time intervened between those poles of empire.
The Orientalists and Their EnemiesRobert Irwin said that Said's concentrating the scope of Orientalism to the Middle East, especially Palestine and Egypt, was a mistake, because the Mandate of Palestine — and British Egypt — only were under direct European control for a short time, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; thus are poor examples for Said's theory of Western cultural imperialism.
That Orientalism should have concentrated upon good examples of imperialism and cultural hegemonysuch as the British Raj of India — and Russia's dominions in Asia —but he did not, because, as a public intellectualEdward Said was more interested in making political points about the politics of the Middle East, in general, and of Palestine, in particular.Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between “the Orient” and (most of the time) “the Occident.” Thus a very large mass of writers.
Orientalism expresses and represents that part culturally and even ideologically as a a mode of discourse with supporting institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery, doctrines, even colonial bureaucracies and colonial styles.
Edward Said’s landmark analysis of the problem, Orientalism (), is now forty years old, and yet the phenomenon it describes feels as entrenched and normalized as it was when he wrote it." Read more. Orientalism and Wretched of the Earth.
Edward Said is an academic who has become a political activist in furthering the cause of an independent Palestine. Forty years after the publication of Edward Said's seminal work, Orientalism lives on in other shapes and forms. Edward W. Said, in his groundbreaking book, Orientalism, defined it as the acceptance in the West of “the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for elaborate theories, epics, novels, social descriptions, and political accounts concerning the .