Policy research working paper

Forest Carbon Supply in Nepal: Evidence from a Choice Experiment English This paper uses a choice experiment conducted in Nepal during to estimate household-level willingness to participate in a village-level program under the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation initiative requiring reductions in fuelwood collection, as a function of the price paid per unit of avoided carbon dioxide emissions. Formal community forests will almost certainly be the core institution within which Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation is implemented in Nepal and likely other countries.

Policy research working paper

Through a purpose-built typology, the argument is made that organisations undertaking important intermediary functions act not only to facilitate the transfer and diffusion of knowledge, as previous literature has emphasized, but that in emerging clusters, their scope of activities, extending into leading joint actions by producers, coordinating new investment and enabling new knowledge, places intermediaries at the centre of the network of organisations.

The implications of this for the governance of the cluster, including inclusion of diverse producers is discussed. Or do they just tell us that they do? Frankish Barclays Bank plcRichard G. Storey University of Sussex Abstract This paper examines the theory and evidence in support of entrepreneurial leaning EL.

Under this theory entrepreneurial performance is argued to be enhanced by EL which itself is enhanced by business experience. However, if business performance is strongly influenced by chance then evidence of EL will be difficult to identify.

We test for EL using a large scale data set comprising new firms. We choose business survival over three years as our performance measure and then formulate three tests for EL.

None of the three tests provide compelling evidence in support of EL. Storey University of Sussex Abstract We investigate the growth and survival of nascent businesses by analyzing their bank records.

We do not find strong evidence Policy research working paper favour of a taxonomy of growth paths, because we observe that every possible growth path seems to occur with roughly equal probability. However, we observe that survival depends on the business' growth path.

Controlling for lagged size, we observe that longer lags of growth, and even start-up size, have significant effects on survival. Life satisfaction and self-employment: But are self-employed individuals also happier, more satisfied with their lives as a whole?

High job satisfaction might cause them to neglect other important domains of life, such that the fulfiling job crowds out other pleasures, leaving the individual on the whole not happier than others. Moreover, self-employment is often chosen to escape unemployment, not for the associated autonomy that seems to account for the high job satisfaction.

We apply matching estimators that allow us to better take into account the above-mentioned considerations and construct an appropriate control group.

Using the BHPS data set that comprises a large nationally representative sample of the British populace, we find that individuals who move from regular employment into self-employment experience an increase in life satisfaction up to two years laterwhile individuals moving from unemployment to self-employment are not more satisfied than their counterparts moving from unemployment to regular employment.

By estimating a Spatial Durbin Model, we find that urbanisation economies, intermediate linkages and innovation, in particular Information and Communication Technologies, are important determinants of specialisation in business services.

We also find significant spatial effects in explaining regional specialisation in business services, which supports the argument of the literature on agglomeration economies.

ICT, Automobiles and Pharmaceuticals. The two main driving forces for this process are firstly the large market potential of these countries and the availability of a large pool of well-qualified scientists and engineers.

A great deal of the activities in India and China are concerned with adapting products and processes to the local market. At the same time a number of companies are devising low cost products specifically for these markets.

This is especially the case for design and development of software in the ICT companies in India.

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It is also important for both software and engineering services for the Automobile companies. Performance Characteristics of Large Firms at the Forefront of Globalization of Technology Vandana Ujjual and Parimal Patel Abstract The aim of this paper is to analyse the performance characteristics of large firms that are at the forefront of globalization of their knowledge creating activities.

This we do by making a comparison with firms that are much more concentrated in terms of their knowledge creation. The results for the sample as a whole show that firms that are geographically dispersed in their technology creation are, on average, considerably larger, have a higher volume of innovative activities, and have superior economic performance.

However in terms of innovation intensity the difference between the two sets of firms is negligible, i.

Policy research working paper

The analysis also shows that there are considerable differences across sectors in the degree to which these results hold. Thus the decisions made by these firms in terms of location of their technology facilities have important implications for both their home countries and for the host countries.

Our results show that a very high share of European firms are technologically active outside their home countries. Moreover the degree of internationalisation of technology varies greatly according to the nationality of firms and according to their main industry of activity.

The most important foreign locations of EU firms are within the EU, and a majority of them are active in at least one other EU country.Is It the Journey That Matters?

A Fresh Look at the Impact of World Bank Policy Lending (English) This paper investigates the impact of World Bank development policy operations on the quality of economic policy during the period World bank policy research working paper no.

may Adam, or research papers are welcome to have been afraid to the social sciences. Economic policy dialogue helps developing countries explore economic policy dialogue helps developing and sectoral issues.

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